1. What does the term “abstraction” mean?
What Rushkoff means by the term “abstraction”, is that it is bringing everything up and out to the same universal level.
2. What does Rushkoff mean when he says that “[d]igital technologies are biased toward abstraction?”
He means that Peoples ideas, and businesses that don’t function on that lelvel are disadvantaged, while those commited to increasing levels tend to dominate.
3. What example does Rushkoff use for highlighting the idea that the “net has turned scalability from a business option to a business requirement?”
He use the idea that companies have had the choice to stay at the “mom and pop” level or they can be become a chain or franchise, and going into the business of business.
4. What is a “vertical” and “horizontal” approach to business?
Going vertical means establishing oneself as the place to do everything on a particular industry. Going horizontal means to offer a service that applies to every category’s transactions.
5. Why are neither vertical or horizontal approaches perfect because of digital technologies?
Because both face competition from their peers in an increasingly commodified landscape.
6. How did scaling up result in a loss of manufacturing, according to Rushkoff?
It was based on the idea of central currency. An example that Rushkoff gives is when companies like GE got rid of their factories and got involved in capital leasing and baking.
7. Rushkoff writes, “What all this abstraction does accomplish here on earth, however, is make everyone and everything more dependent on highly centralized standards.” Can you give a concrete example of what he means?
An example of this, we be our need for google. I know that i use google for everything. I use it for directions, papers and anything else I need to find. If we were without google we might be lost.
8. Rushkoff backtracks a bit from his argument against the biases of digital media by including all media in the problem with abstraction. He cites language as an example. Explain.
He states that language is an abstraction of the real world With that being so, it takes a tremendous amount of agreement to have words mean the same thing.
9. What makes digital technologies “one further removed from what we think of as reality” than other media?
Because in a world as filled with respresentations as ours, it is easliy to get entranced by signs, that we lose sight of the here and now.