Will Luers

Will Luers

Welcome to the class. I am your guide through the world of digital cinema. Ask me anything. My role is to help you find new technical and aesthetic paths.

Cinema-Writing

 

Rain, 1929 – Joris Ivens

 

A Propos de Nice, 1930 – by Jean Vigo

A Diary for Timothy, 1945 – by Humphrey Jennings

Toute la mémoire du monde , 1957 – by Alain Resnais

F is for Fake, 1973 – by Orson Wells

Elegy of a Voyage, 2001 – Alexander Sokurov

Sherman’s March, 1983- by Ross McElwee

San Soleil/Sunless, 1983 – by Chris Marker

Gasland,  2010 – Josh Fox

Parallel I-IV, 2014 – by Harun Farocki

 

 

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Visual Evidence

View Montage assignments…

Documentaries

 

Harlan County, USA

Harlan County, USA

 

 

 


Moving the Camera

Static Camera (locked-off) :
-staging and blocking talent
-dynamic framing and editing

Moving Camera:
-handheld, panning, tracking, etc.
-the long take
-planned  vs. spontaneous  (handheld)

Pan, Tilt:
– unnatural, motivate the move
– start  frame (10 sec.) , movement, end  frame (10 secs)
– plan shot, practice with tripod head or monopod swivel

Dolly/Tracking:
– skateboards, cars, bicycles and wheelchairs
– gopro attached to moving vehicals

Handheld (with monopod):
-swish pans
– wide angle, adjust focus
– tai chi movements ( from the center)

Steadicams:
– iphone smoothee, flowmotion, etc.
– DIY – hang a weight

The Cranes are Flying, 1957 – Mikhail Kalatozov and Sergei Urusevsky (camera)

Husbands and Wives 1992, Woody Allen

Blair Witch Project, 1999, Daniel Myrick, Eduardo Sánchez


The Interview

Interview (A roll)  + Visual Evidence (B roll)

Prep/Research:

  • talk to subject without camera, find the story
  • use interview to support, not replace, visual evidence

Plan the Story:

  • make an outline of the story: hook, intro, complication, climax, resolution
  • make a shot list for the visual evidence
  • make a list of questions for the interviewee.  remember, no simple yes/no questions

Camera Setup:

  • find a good location with decent visuals, good lighting for the subject and minimal or no background noise
  • use a tripod or keep is still if you have the camera on a monopod
  • change camera angle/zoom between questions for shot variety, but keep to standard medium shot (leave enough head room)
  • follow rule of thirds for framing (leave some space on the side interviewee is angled)
  • pay attention to the background (give a sense of place)

Mic Setup:

  • get mic close to the subject. three feet is ideal
  • test your levels
  • remember to push record!
  • no bumps, ticks or hisses near mic
  • do not let subject hold mic

Lighting:

  • find a good key light to fall at an angle on the subject’s face.  near a window or lamp, for example. try to avoid overhead of fluorescent lighting
  • With a basic DIY light set up, have a Key Light and Fill Light at a slightly higher angle than the subject. And then, if you have another light, use it for the Background Light. See Lighting on the Fly
  • never shoot a subject in front of a window!
  • “bounce” lighting off the walls for fill and backlighting, or use reflectors
  • avoid heavy shadows
  • down-and-dirty-lighting-kit

The Interview:

  • start with getting full name (perhaps spelling) and other relevant info (position, title, job)
  • let people talk. keep silent for a few moments after a question has been answered. when you are silent, interviewees will fill the void with something perhaps more authentic
  • do not direct actions
  • don’t move the camera off the subject when they are showing/pointing to something. you can get it after the interview
  • look for visual evidence at location of interview
  • continue interview while shooting visual evidence
  • listen to your subject

 

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Narrative Spaces

Framing Assignments

Skyfall edit – frames, shots, scene, sequence

Screen Grab Assignment – scenes built from shots, edited shots link spaces, temporal events and story

Framing Assignment – composition, camera position, on-screen/off screen space, reveal and conceal, projective and imaginary spaces

Cinema language (not exactly like a language)

  • mise en scene – world depicted/in front of the camera, faces, landscape, gesture, costume
  • framing – camera position and lens, moving camera
  • editing – continuity and montage, order, rhythm, syntax/grammar
  • sound – voice, music, effects, 3d space

Narrative Continuity (discontinuity > narrative continuity)

All edits are discontinuous. Editing is a trick of condensing and expanding illusions of space and time for story effects. Story effects are built from the juxtaposition of discontinuous units: Frame-Shot-Sequence-Act-Story. Story momentum reinforces perceived continuity.

Continuity editing creates the illusion of continuous space and time in a fiction or documentary and should be considered as an opportunity for making fluid connections and not as a set of strict rules never to be broken.

  • Establishing shot 
  • 180 degree rule
  • 30 degree rule
  • Cut in / Match on Action
  • Motivated Pov shot
  • Eyeline match/ Shot Reverse Shot
  • Empty frame
  • Graphic Match
  • Parallel action/ Crosscutting
  • Jump Cut (deliberate discontinuity)

establishing shot / 180 degree rule / 30 degree rule / match on action / motivated pov / eyeline match

North by Northwest – Alfred Hitchcock, cafeteria scene…

Graphic Match / Cross-cutting:

 

Jump Cuts > Montage

Documentaries and Narrative Continuity

Big Space – connecting remote places and events for story effects

Humphrey Jennings and Stewart McAllister’s ‘Listen to Britain’

 

Cover what you can of an event and always look for opportunities for continuity cuts.

Move around the subject(s) (within 180 degrees) and vary your camera framing:tight (CU), medium and wide (establishing).

For covering processes -like somebody making something- think of five shot variations for each sequence:

Michael Rosenblum’s 5-Shot-Sequence

  1. A closeup on the hands of a subject – showing WHAT is happening
  2. A closeup on the face – WHO is doing it
  3. A wide shot – WHERE its happening
  4. An over the shoulder shot (OTS) – linking together the previous three concepts
  5. An unusual, or side/low shot – providing story-specific context

 

 


Narrative Structure

Aristotle Poetics, 335 BC
Socrates>Plato>Aristotle – logic, scientific inquiry and methods, classification and taxonomy, aesthetics, literary criticism

Aristotle’s Poetics
– plot = “the arrangement of the incidents” into a whole
– drama vs. narration / show vs. tell (mimesis)
– unity of action (cause and effect chain)
– complex plot: reversal and recognition
– tragedy arouses pity and fear and then purges them (catharsis)

Three Act Structure in Movies
Act 1: (20-25min)
– exposition, normal life, intro to characters
-inciting incident, protagonist(s) has a choice of how and whether to act
Act 2: (20-60min)
– complications stemming from actions, cause and effect chain
– point of no return (protagonist committed to action)
– reversal and recognition (the twist and then protagonist understanding what needs to be done)
Act 3: (20-25min)
– unraveling or denouement
-resolution and closure

Western narrative traditions and conflict theory
– the battle of ego(s) -winners and losers
– protagonist with desire vs. antagonist obstructing desire
– conflict all the way down – dialogue, scene, act
– cause effect chain
– clarity of purpose and moral certainty are valued
– representation, mimesis in dramatic arts, presents the world as knowable
– objectivity, omniscient narration
– closure

IN-CLASS GROUP EXERCISE: late to class…

Premiere keyboard shortcuts

Basic sound editing
Adding Effects
Animating effects
Adding Titles

Assignment: Due Next Monday (5/22)

Continuity (5%):  Shoot and edit a short video that follows the principles  of continuity to create the illusion of continuous space and time.  Try to vary the angles and distances of your shots:  establishing shot, medium-shot, close-up, extreme-close-up. Sound may be an element here, but please do not include talking, music or verbal explanations. We are working on visual explanations, depicting continuity of action. Below are some ideas.

  • Making Something:
    Document someone making something to completion. The process may take 3-30 minutes, but the final video should be no more than 60 seconds. Document a single continuous action (making art, playing sports, cooking a meal, walking a dog) and edit it into a sequence that is between 30-60 seconds. 
  • “Lunch Date” redux:
    Using continuity editing, narrate a 30-60 sec. story about a character suspecting another character of taking something belonging to them.

Post your Continuity Assignment with a Vimeo/Youtube embed (place the url on its own line) and write a 500 word assessment of your video from the standpoint of framing and continuity editing. What works and what doesn’t work to tell the visual story?

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Video Reels

WHY

  • Chance to create a project
  • Show what you can do
  • What you want to do
  • Show who you are (personality)

WHAT

  • Only your own work!!
  • the Best parts in under 60 seconds
  • What is your aim in getting work?

HOW

 

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Networked Video

EXTRA CREDIT!! 

Video Essay (up to 10 points towards final grade)

Take a a topic from class that interests you – continuity, montage, networked video, etc. – and make a 1-3 minute video that demonstrates your thoughts about the subject with text/voice-over, clips from movies, graphics, still images. You will be graded on your ideas, effort and editing skills.  We will spend a class studying the Essay Film/Video, and look at examples, but you can start planning your idea now. For now is a video about the form.

View assignments – Job Profiles

——————————–

Video Blogging 2001-2008:

cinema without show business
http://patalab02.blogspot.com/

Youtube (2005) , purchased by Google in 2006 for $1.65 billion

YouTube Statistics

  • over a billion users — almost one-third of all people on the Internet
  • You can navigate YouTube in a total of 76 different languages (covering 95% of the Internet population)
  • More than half of YouTube views come from mobile devices.
  • YouTube overall, and even YouTube on mobile alone, reaches more 18-34 and 18-49 year-olds than any cable network in the U.S.
  • Number of channels earning six figures per year on YouTube is up 50% y/y
  • 1 hour of new video every second / 300 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute!

 

Viral Videos:

“YouTube personality Kevin Nalty (known as Nalts) recalls on his blog: “A few years ago, a video could be considered ‘viral’ if it hit a million views”, but says as of 2011, only “if it gets more than 5 million views in a 3–7 day period” can it be considered “viral”.”

from wikipedia

220,270,352 views = about $ .5- 1 million

cost per 1,000 views (CPM) = $0.25 – $4 range

1 view = around 16 seconds

 

Web Series (webisodes)

“YouTube takes a 45% cut and sometimes the YouTuber also has Multi Channel Network representing who also takes around 45%. So the YouTuber, who gets on average 600k+ views a week, will end up with around $1-3k a week from CPMs.” – Chasing their Star on YouTube 

DisneyCollectorBR earns $1.4 and $21.9 million each year

lonelygirl15

June 2006 to August 1, 2008,

season 1
season2

Haunted Sunshine Girl

 

Vimeo VOD

Sriracha

Everybody Street

 

Strategies for Youtube

  1. shareability
  2. conversation
  3. interactivity
  4. consistency
  5. targeting
  6. sustainability
  7. discoverability
  8. accessibility
  9. collaboration
  10. inspiration/authenticity
  • Build Plan
  • Create Great Content
  • Schedule
  • Optimize
  • Promote
  • Amplify
  • Measure

 

Google Analytics of “Greg Hanson a Collage Artist”

 

Discuss/Plan/Pitch Final Projects

 

Interactive Cinema (5%):

Using the hypervideo template | demo  I provide, shoot and edit at least 5-10 short videos (10-60 seconds) that are connected as a multilinear narrative through hyperlinks.  Multiple hyperlinks or hotspots on any given video to any other video in the enclosed network should create multiple pathways for the user. What can you do with such a structure? What kind of cinema narratives can you invent?

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Hybrid Spaces

Montages…

Job Profiles…

Discuss Lev Manovich “What is Digital Cinema?“…

COLLAGE > REMIX

New ways to depict space – multiple, discontinuous, mixed media
– newspaper and paint
– photography and drawing
– text and image

dream

The Dream, 1908 by Pablo Picasso

Picasso, Pablo
Picasso, Pablo

Guitar, 1913 by Pablo Picasso

The Clock, by Christian Marclay

 

DIGITAL EFEECTS

Film Compositing – multiple images in single frame
-painting on film
-matte effects (split screen), painted sets/ backgrounds
-titles, text on screen

Video Compositing
– multiple layers of video
– effects (pixels as information)
– green screen – swap pixel colors
– the pixel grid

New Media (HTML) – each piece of media is discrete, not a composite

Google’s Deep Dream software

GREEN SCREEN

Cloverfield, green screen effect

 

GLITCH / DATAMOSHING

 

COMPOSTING (layers of tracks)

https://vimeo.com/groups/inspirational/videos/79218447

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfwIwrhmEtA

Peter Greenaway – Tulse Luper

 

ROTOSCOPING (drawing on video)

Watch: Waking Life, by Richard Linklater

 

CMDC student Haley Zach

 

MOBILE HYBRID NARRATIVE

Janet Cardiff – mobile art
blended space of physical space and cinematic representation of space

 

SCREEN CAPTURE /DESKTOP SPACE

There are many option for screen capture. On a Mac use the free Quicktime: File>New Screen Recording

Noah, by by Walter Woodman and Patrick Cederberg as a class project

NightWatch-ComeToMe NightWatch-NoStop NightWatch-hurrydoll

Green Screen In-Class Exercise

ASSIGNMENT: Due Next Monday
Hybrid Space (5%):
Create a 30-60 second video that explores a hybrid cinematic space: a screen space made of multiple layers of video, text, graphic imagery and/or image effects There are many techniques you can combine to create a hybrid space: compositing (layering of video tracks), green screen, video effects, spatial montage, etc. Or you can use  Newhive to create your own layered HTML space. The only rule is you must  incorporate the “indexicality” of video (your own or remixed from other sources).

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Time Frames

View Contimuity assignments…

 

Time, narrative and editing…

continuous time – screen time <= story time

compressed time –  screen time < story time

continuous – long takes, screen time = story time

continuous – slow motion, expanded time, screen time > story time

discontinuous – fragmented, montage, jumpcuts, rhythmic cuts (on sound)

 

loop > repetition, cyclical, infinite, moment, semi-static, non-narrative?

 

https://vine.co/v/5QLLrdIbAau

https://vine.co/v/5EEQizIWpEQ

https://vine.co/v/5YQ6Xq3AEK2

from FookedonHonix

Cinemagraphs (portion of image is in movement)

this-is-cinematic

iwdrm

hellyeahcinemagraphs

stopmotionstudies.net

Moving Comics

Gif Comics 1

Gif Comics 2

Gif Brewery: video into gifs

Windows Gif generator

3 Loop Exercise

insert a loop into a blog post with vimeo or youtube

[
video src=”url” loop=”on” autoplay=”on”
]

loop series template

loop series zip

 

WATCH:“Run Lola Run” (1991), by directed by Tom Tykwer

——————————————————-

ASSIGNMENT: Due Next Class (Monday)

Time Frames

Shoot and edit 3-5 video loops (6-10 second mini-narratives) that depict, emphasize or evoke different subjective experiences of time: cyclic, slow, timeless, frantic, rhythmic.

In some of the loops, try to incorporate continuity editing – POV shot, match on action – to maintain unity. In others, try out a more discontinuous style. Also, create a variety in shot length for emphasis. A 4-second shot sandwiched between 2-second shots, will seem to stretch time.

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Hypervideo

 

Assignments…

Database Logic,Lev Manovich

database: a structured collection of data
no beginning or end,  multilinear
encyclopedia, catalogs, index/search
HTML, Video Games – an interface to a database
narrative shell masks the algorithm of a game. the key to the game experience
databases < interface > algorithms
narrative = cause and effect chain, character, event
syntagm/paradigm
cinema : assembly line sequencing

Dziga Vetov, Man With A Movie Camera

 

Peter Greenaway, The Falls

 

————————————-

Interactive Cinema

Kinoautomat (1967)
“At nine points during the film the action stops,and a moderator appears on stage to ask the audience to choose between two scenes; following an audience vote, the chosen scene is played.”

Hypertext > Hypermedia > Flash > Video Games > Transmedia

Olia Lialina – My Boyfriend Came Back from the War (netcinema) 1996

http://www.zoebeloff.com/pages/zoe.html

http://www.peterhorvath.net/

http://dreamingmethods.com/theflat/

http://dreamingmethods.com/lastdream/

http://prynovella.com/

——————

http://netescopio.meiac.es/en/obra.php?id=78

http://netescopio.meiac.es/en/obra.php?id=128

Branching: YouTube annotations:

Demo how to…

 

http://www.dtc-wsuv.org/mbarnette15/Final/index.html

HTML5 media
<video>
<audio>

hypervideo template 

——————————————————-

Final Projects:

 

 

 

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Montage

View/Discuss

Loops and Continuity Assignments

Run Lola Run

  • Classical and Digital Cinema Styles
  • Classical = linear cause and effect , illusion of 3D space, material invisible (theater)
  • Digital = nonlinearity, repetition (loop), manipulation of time and space, materiality foregrounded (device screen)
  • Information space (Interface) and Narrative Space (Immersive world)

Review:

Building blocks of cinematic storytelling…  or ways to hold attention:

Frame > Shot > Scene > Sequence

Framing: distance from subject, angle, diagonal lines, foreground-middleground-background, depth, light/shadow, focus/unfocus, focal length, depth of field, rule of thirds, moving frame, duration

Continuity: cinematic space – the motivated shot, screen direction, 180 degree rule, 30 degree rule, match on action, graphic match, eyeline match, POV

Montage: juxtaposition of discontinuous shots: rapid cuts, rhythm, emotional sequences, thoughts, ideas, summary of events, passage of time, voice-over sequence, associational thinking, commentary, evidence, split screen

 

Montage

Kuleshov Effect

Vertov– Man with a Movie Camera

Sergei Eisenstein‘s Methods of montage

Metric

– where the editing follows a specific number of frames (based purely on the physical nature of time), cutting to the next shot no matter what is happening within the image. This montage is used to elicit the most basal and emotional of reactions in the audience.

Rhythmic

– includes cutting based on continuity, creating visual continuity from edit to edit.

Tonal

– a tonal montage uses the emotional meaning of the shots—not just manipulating the temporal length of the cuts or its rhythmical characteristics—to elicit a reaction from the audience even more complex than from the metric or rhythmic montage. For example, a sleeping baby would emote calmness and relaxation.

Overtonal/Associational

– the overtonal montage is the cumulation of metric, rhythmic, and tonal montage to synthesize its effect on the audience for an even more abstract and complicated effect.

Intellectual

– uses shots which, combined, elicit an intellectual meaning.

——————————————————————

Montage Clips:

 

An Andalusian Dog, by Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí – 1929 (tonal, rhythmic, false continuity)

 

Requiem for a Dream, Aronofsky (metric, tonal)

 

City of God (metric, tonal, rhythmic)

 

 

Tree of Life, Terence Malick (overtonal/associational)

 

Intellectual montage (ideas made by cut):

 


 

Spatial Montage:

Jean-Louis Boissier’s Flora petrinsularis. – the interface

Eija-Liisa Ahtila

Mike Figgis – Timecode

 

Nonlinear, Chaos and Post-Continuity Editing

Steenbeck Editing

Nonlinear Editing

timeline> sequence > tracks >clips> audio sync/linked  > transitions

timeline

Compositing/Spatial Montage/Effects/Color Manipulation

 


 

ASSIGNMENT: Due Next Class

Spatial Montage (5%)

Create a 30-60 second video that has at least two distinct video frames simultaneously on the screen. Think about the relationships between each frame’s content (for continuity or montage effects), the relationship between each frame’s editing rhythm, the combinations of their sound tracks and the similarities or differences in the proportions and positioning of the frames themselves.

OR

Montage Assignment (5%):

As an element of film language, montage (the juxtaposition of images) can be a powerful tool for emotional storytelling and surrealist surprise. But it can also be used for propaganda, marketing, training, education and entertainment. In other words, be free to juxtapose images for narrative/expressive effect, but be aware and sensitive to how those juxtapositions will be perceived.

In this assignment, you are to express an idea, a feeling or complex subject through the juxtaposition of images.  You may use natural sound or keep it silent, but please no music tracks. I want you to find the rhythm and pacing of your edits in the narrative, not in external music.

OR

Movie Trailer Remix (5%)

 Download 3-5 movie trailers and/or scenes from movies. You will get the most humorous results if you mix different genres! Bring these videos into Premiere and edit your own trailer of an imaginary movie. Try to use continuity editing, montage and sound editing to create the illusion that your remix references a real movie.


 

Start to formulate an idea for the final project. Propose the idea to in person or as an email.

Final Project (30%) DUE last class

With consideration of the assignments, readings , screenings and class discussions, create a final project that explores/exploits  at least one feature of “digital cinema”: looped video, glitched video, composited video, networked video, hyperlinked video, database video, etc.  You may create a fictional, non-fictional or abstract project. However,the project must be made of video (moving digital images originally captured as video), incorporate cinema language (thoughtful continuity editing and/or montage) and you must engage with the class ideas in the conception of your project. Your grade we will be based on the quality and effort of your creative work as well as its conceptual foundation.

Some suggested ideas:

  • a Youtube web series
  • video loops in an hyperlinked html project,
  • a mashup or series of mashups,
  • a video that creates a hybrid space with composting, spatial montage and other effects
  • a multilinear database narrative

 

Group projects are possible.

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Evolution of Cinema Language

EARLIEST FORMS

Thomas Edison – Kinetoscope, movement, sensational

 

Lumiere Brothers- outside (light), portable, travel, “documentaries”

 

Melies – theater, vaudeville, fantasy, special effects, illusion

 

HER TRUST

D.W. Griffith

“A shot of a whole battlefield would be incomprehensible because looking at real things, the human vision fastens itself upon a quick succession of small comprehensible incidents like a mosaic out of such detail- the director counterfeits the operation of the eye with his lens and varies the length of shots to avoid the hypnotic affect.” – Griffith

 

Continuity Editing (The Classical Hollywood Style)

INTER-FRAME NARRATIVE- editing

  • 180 degree rule
  • Cut in
  • Match on Action
  • Parallel action
  • Motivated Pov shot
  • Eyeline match
  • Flashback
  • Multiple camera set ups
  • Close up
  • Extreme long shot/Establishing shot
  • Cross cutting, intercutting / Parallel Action
  • Visual Dramatic climax. Form=Content

INTRA-FRAME NARRATIVE-

  • production design
  • mise en scène: set /costume / acting/ facial expression/gesture
  • pan
  • tilt
  • camera angle
  • lighting effect
  • fade
  • dissolve
  • iris shot
  • mask
  • split screen
  • soft focus
  • matte shot

Tension and rhythm in Classical editing

Vine – six seconds of continuity

Adam Goldberg

https://vine.co/v/brg6hOe1ZpT


 

IN-CLASS EXERCISE:

Download Youtube video – get Firefox Addon – Youtube Downloader

Use Keepvid.com

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The Interview

Interview (A roll)  + Visual Evidence (B roll)

Prep/Research:

  • talk to subject without camera, find the story
  • use interview to support, not replace, visual evidence

Plan the Story:

  • make an outline of the story: hook, intro, complication, climax, resolution
  • make a shot list for the visual evidence
  • make a list of questions for the interviewee.  remember, no simple yes/no questions

Camera Setup:

  • find a good location with decent visuals, good lighting for the subject and minimal or no background noise
  • use a tripod or keep is still if you have the camera on a monopod
  • change camera angle/zoom between questions for shot variety, but keep to standard medium shot (leave enough head room)
  • follow rule of thirds for framing (leave some space on the side interviewee is angled)
  • pay attention to the background (give a sense of place)

Mic Setup:

  • get mic close to the subject. three feet is ideal
  • test your levels
  • remember to push record!
  • no bumps, ticks or hisses near mic
  • do not let subject hold mic

Lighting:

  • find a good key light to fall at an angle on the subject’s face.  near a window or lamp, for example. try to avoid overhead of fluorescent lighting
  • With a basic DIY light set up, have a Key Light and Fill Light at a slightly higher angle than the subject. And then, if you have another light, use it for the Background Light. See Lighting on the Fly
  • never shoot a subject in front of a window!
  • “bounce” lighting off the walls for fill and backlighting, or use reflectors
  • avoid heavy shadows
  • down-and-dirty-lighting-kit

The Interview:

  • start with getting full name (perhaps spelling) and other relevant info (position, title, job)
  • let people talk. keep silent for a few moments after a question has been answered. when you are silent, interviewees will fill the void with something perhaps more authentic
  • do not direct actions
  • don’t move the camera off the subject when they are showing/pointing to something. you can get it after the interview
  • look for visual evidence at location of interview
  • continue interview while shooting visual evidence
  • listen to your subject

 

 

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Framing

Framing (camera position)

Variety of camera positions and angles keeps the eyes busy and interested, evokes the space and psychology of characters. Maintaining a single angle or distance reinforces a point of view.

types of camera positions:

ELS – extreme long shot (landscape)


LS – long shot (full body)


MLS – medium long shot (from knees up)

M – medium (from waist up)

MCU – medium close-up (from chest/shoulders up)


CU – close-up (face)


ECU – extreme close-up (portion of face)

lens length:

wide angle = opens space, more distance, more inclusive


telephoto/zoom = collapses space, more intimate, separate from background.

types of camera angles:

high


low


canted/Dutch

types of subject compositions:

frontal
3/4 front
left/right profile
3/4 back – over the shoulder, POV
behind
profile two shot
direct to camera two shot
over the shoulder two shot
headroom, look room
subjective/objective styles

rule of thirds in shot composition

Examples

Keep Track of Camera Framing:

 

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